Technology used in video games is making its way to hospital rooms with the potential to help avoid patient falls, according to a study.
Between 700,000 and 1 million people each year fall in U.S. hospitals, according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Since 2008, weve investigated ways to detect and prevent falls by older adults living in independent senior apartments, Marilyn Rantz, RN, PhD, a professor in the Sinclair School of Nursing at the University of Missouri and in the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the MU School of Medicine, said in a news release.
Because falls are a concern in hospitals, we thought much of what we learned regarding older people could apply to protecting hospital patients.
Falls can happen anywhere, but in hospitals people are at higher risk of falls because patients are sick or injured, in an unfamiliar place and sometimes dizzy from medication, according to background information in the study, which appeared earlier this year in the Journal of Gerontological Nursing. Hospital patients also are at higher risk for injuries if they fall because many are elderly or have underlying health conditions.
During the past several years, the MU research team has explored a variety of technologies in its work with senior citizens, including Doppler radar, sound sensors and video cameras, said Marjorie Skubic, PhD, the LaPierre Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering and a professor of computer science at the MU College of Engineering. Doppler radar and sound sensors can detect that a person fell, but neither shows what happened leading up to the fall, Skubic said.
By seeing what happened before a fall, we can better understand what caused it, Rantz said. The more we know about what causes falls, the more effectively we can prevent them.
Ordinary video cameras record the events before a fall, but they work only in adequate light, said Skubic, who also serves as the director of MUs Center for Eldercare and Rehabilitation Technology.
When video-game motion-capture technology was released a few years ago, the MU team gained a new tool that avoided the limitations of the other technologies and could monitor falls in a different way. And unlike video cameras, the motion-capture system portrays people as anonymous, three-dimensional silhouettes, protecting their privacy. Those are a few of the reasons that Skubic called the motion-capture technology a game-changer, according to the news release.
The device looks like a thin black box. On one side, black glass covers the sensors that pick up the movements of video-game players or of patients in a hospital room. A depth camera measures the distances to objects in its view. A cord connects the black box to a small computer.
The system works by sending a grid pattern of infrared light, invisible to the human eye, into a room and examining how objects and people in the room distort the pattern. The machine analyzes these distortions to make a 3-D map, showing a patient, the patients bed and tray table, and everything else in the room.
If the system detects a person on the floor, it automatically reviews the preceding events as the person moved to the floor. Applying a precise algorithm created by Skubic, doctoral graduate Erik Stone and an interdisciplinary team, the computer calculates the probability that the changes represent a persons fall rather than, for example, someone kneeling down to tie a shoe.
The MU research team installed a motion-capture device in each of six patient rooms at University Hospital in Columbia, Mo., part of MU Health System. The researchers trained nursing staff to explain the study to patients. The devices collected data continuously, monitoring the rooms 24 hours a day.
The research article covers the first eight months of the study. The sensors did not record any patient falls during that time, but stunt actors simulated 50 falls in the rooms, providing more data for the algorithm.
We believe the technology is promising because it accurately identified falls and may eventually help prevent falls, said Rantz, who also serves as a Helen E. Nahm Chair with the MU Sinclair School of Nursing and the University of Missouri Curators Professor. We are now in the process of installing the sensors in more patient rooms to learn more about its effectiveness.
The researchers said a potentially encouraging aspect of their work was the reduction of falls in the six patient rooms during the study.
I think these devices may have brought more attention to the issue of falls, Skubic said. It could have made patients more aware of the risks and more likely to ask their nurses for help getting out of bed.