An increase in total knee arthroplasty procedures over the past 20 years has been driven by increases in both the number of Medicare enrollees and per capita utilization, according to a study.
Researchers also found a decrease in hospital length of stay for TKA, but increased hospital readmission rates and increased rates of infectious complications.
“Total knee arthroplasty is a common and safe procedure typically performed for relief of symptoms in patients with severe knee arthritis,” researchers wrote in background information for the study, which appears in the Sept. 26 issue of JAMA. “Available data suggest that approximately 600,000 TKA procedures are performed annually in the United States at a cost of approximately $15,000 per procedure ($9 billion per year in aggregate).”
Total knee arthroplasty is one of the most common and costly surgical procedures performed in the United States, the researchers added.
Peter Cram, MD, MBA, of the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine in Iowa City, and colleagues conducted a study to evaluate trends in primary and revision TKA volume, per capita utilization and outcomes in the U.S. Medicare population between 1991 and 2010. The analysis included 3,271,851 patients (age 65 years or older) who underwent primary TKA and 318,563 who underwent revision TKA as identified in Medicare Part A data files.
The researchers found that the number of primary TKA procedures increased from 93,230 in 1991 to 243,802 in 2010 (an increase of 161.5%), while per capita utilization increased 99.2% (from 31.2 procedures per 10,000 Medicare enrollees in 1991 to 62.1 procedures per 10,000 in 2010). The number of revision TKA procedures increased 105.9% (from 9,650 in 1991 to 19,871 in 2010), and per capita utilization increased 59.4% (from 3.2 procedures per 10,000 Medicare enrollees in 1991 to 5.1 procedures per 10,000 in 2010).
Also during this time period, the prevalence of obesity among patients undergoing primary TKA increased from 4% to 11.5%. The average hospital length of stay for primary TKA declined from 7.9 days in 1991-1994 to 3.5 days in 2007-2010, a relative decline of 55.7%. All-cause 30-day readmission rates increased from 4.2% in 1991-1994 to 5% in 2007-2010.
“Trends in discharge disposition after revision TKA demonstrated a similar pattern to that which was observed for primary TKA — a decline in discharges to home or inpatient rehabilitation and an increase in discharge to skilled care and outpatient rehabilitation,” the authors wrote.
The researchers added that for revision TKA, a decrease in hospital LOS was accompanied by an increase in all-cause 30-day readmission from 6.1% to 8.9% and an increase in readmission for wound infection from 1.4% to 3%.
“These figures suggest that growth in primary and revision TKA volume is being driven by both an increase in the number of Medicare enrollees and an increase in per capita arthroplasty utilization,” the authors wrote. “This growth is likely driven by a combination of factors including an expansion in the types of patients considered likely to benefit from TKA, an aging population and an increasing prevalence of certain conditions that predispose patients to osteoarthritis, most notably obesity.
“The growth in TKA should prompt consideration of whether too many (or too few) of these procedures are being performed both in aggregate and among key patient subgroups defined by race, sex or age.”
To read the study, visit http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1362022.